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国际APICS协会定义:APS与SCP的权威定义
APSS高级计划与排程协会   2012-10-04 06:19:44 作者:APSS 来源:APSS 文字大小:[][][]

美国APICS协会定义:APS与SCP的分别详细定义:

APS :Advanced tools and analytical applications help planning at all levels but are generally tightly focused rather than broad. The advanced tools covered here are supply chain planning (SCP) and advance planning and optimization/scheduling (APO/APS).
 
The key difference between SCP and APS is that the SCP is more of a management tool for making holistic supply chain decisions while APS is used for detailed system optimization once those strategic priorities have been set. SCP is a narrowly focused tool for simulating the effect of various management priorities; APS is broad set of planning and control tools. SCP manages supply channel constraints, finds optimal cost, provides secure communication with key suppliers ,and forms networks across the supply chain that can be started and ended on an ad hoc basis. APS addresses granular constraints at the plant level across multiple plants and synchronizes capacity with work load . However ,these system have overlapping functionality, which is covered first.
 
SCP and APS use analytical applications such as mathematical and heuristic modeling and optimizing techniques and simulations. Both usually include user-friendly  planning tools such as interactive scorecards and drag-and-drop functionality in their interfaces. These advanced tools help plan at the strategic, tactical, and operational levels but do not perform transactions themselves.
 
At the strategic level, these systems perform logistics network design. For a manufacturing company, this would include determining the location of factories, warehouses, and distribution centers, including which aspects of the supply chain will be owned and which will be contracted from a third party.
 
 
At the tactical level, supply chain_master planning helps optimize production and distribution by maximizing the use of transportation and inventory across the supply chain. Supply chain_master planning seeks to maximize profit and minimize cost while taking seasonality, promotions, the competition, capacity, and demand into consideration. The output of the medium- and short-term optimization and  simulations becomes the supply chain_master plan. This plan
includes optimizations for production planning and feeds a detailed sequence of events to the transactional systems, It ensures the availability of materials and capacity and synchronizes their flow. Feedback from these plans helps continuously improve supply chain planning.
 
At the operational planning level , advanced tools create demand fore_casts, demand plans, inventory plan, and transportation plans and help optimize daily production seheduling .These systems remove pressure from bottlenecks in systems as they occur or in simulations. There is a great deal of overlap with these systems and tools such as SCEM. This area also includes collaborative planning, fore_casting, and replenishment (CPFR).  
 
 
SCP functions:
 
-SCV (supply chain visibility) link directly with SCEM(supply chain event management)
-Strategic network design
-Demand planning
-Supply planning
-Fulfillment scheduling
-CPFR
-Product life cycle management tools
 
APS functions:
 
-Resource and materials optimization using business rules
-Simulation using memory-resident technology to provide fast turnaround of results and multiple “what-if” scenarios
-Synchronization of operation
-Finite scheduling (recognizes capacity constraints)
-Constraint management
-Dynamic lead time calculation following business rules and compensating for complex systems
-Simultaneous material and capacity consideration to ensure that both are available as needed.
-Penalty management –the cost for using non-optimum routing or equipment.
 
APSS协会权威翻译:
 
高级的工具和分析应用来帮助各个层面的计划,但一般都是重点突出,而不是广泛。这里介绍的高级的工具是:供应链计划(SCP)和高级计划和优化/排程(APO/ APS 
 
 SCPAPS之间的主要区别是,SCP更多的是一种管理手段为了整体供应链的决策,而APS是一旦战略重点已经确定,用于详细的系统优化。 SCP是聚焦模拟各种管理优先效应的工具; APS广泛用于计划和控制的工具。 SCP管理供应渠道的限制,找到最佳的成本,与主要供应商提供安全沟通,形成整个供应链的开始和结束一个特设的基础网络。 APS的重点是详细工厂级的约束,通过多工厂和同步与工作负荷能力。当然,这些系统有很大的重叠功能。
   
SCPAPS使用分析与应用用数学建模,优化和启发式技术和模拟。通常包括两种,用户友好的计划工具如可视化交互式记分卡(甘特图)和手工拖拉功能。这些高级的工具可以帮助战略、战术和操作层面的计划,但不执行交易本身。
   
在战略层面上,这些系统进行物流网络设计。对于一个制造公司,这将包括确定工厂、仓库和配送中心,其中包括供应链将是所有方面肯由第三方签约的设施。
 
在战术层面,供应链的主计划有利于最大限度地在整个供应链中的运输和库存中使用优化的生产和分销。供应链的主计划,旨在最大限度地提高利润,降低成本,同时考虑到季节性,促销,竞争,能力和需求。该中期和短期优化和模拟的结果成为供应链的主计划。该计划包括生产计划优化和详细的事件序列的交易系统,它保证了物料和能力的可用性和同步地流动。从这些计划的反馈有助于不断改善供应链的计划。
 
在运作层面,高级的工具可以建立需求预测,需求计划,库存计划,运输计划,并帮助优化日生产排程。当瓶颈出现或模拟时这些系统可以解除瓶颈压力。有一个与这些系统和工具有很大的重叠,如SCEM。这个领域还包括协同规划,预测和补货(CPFR)。
 
APS是管理供应链最重要的系统,就象ERP系统,也形成了应用模块化工具有利于管理者管理扩展的供应链,有些APS系统已经包含了SCP的功能。
              
SCP 功能:
 
-SCV(供应链可视性)直接连结SCEM(供应链事件管理)
-
战略网络设计
-
需求计划
-
供应计划
-
履约排程
-CPFR
-
产品生命周期管理工具
 
APS 功能:
 
-基于业务规则的资源和物料优化
-
模拟仿真使用内存驻留技术来提供快速计算和多个“假设”场景
-
运作的同步
-
有限排程(能力的限制)
-
约束管理
-
动态提前期计算:基于业务规则和复杂系统
-
同时考虑物料和能力的约束,以确保两者可用。
-
惩罚成本管理-使用非优化工艺或设备的成本。
 
*摘自美国 APICS 2008 Using Information Technology to Enable Supply Chain Management Page 109-117
 
 
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